India gender-based violence policy hub
This hub provides key facts about gender-based violence (GBV) in India.
Gathering and updating this information will help to inform our own research in the area and, over time, influence policy to help reduce GBV. It will also help to inform the None in Three game aimed at young people in India. For more information and references, download our policy briefing sheet.
1986 – Amendments to the Indian Penal Code, 1862 – Sections outlining unlawful treatment of women, including dowry death, abduction, or rape, have been incorporated into the Indian Penal Code.
1986 – Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act – The Act prohibits the indecent representation of women in publications, paintings, and through advertisements.
1986 – Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act – The Act outlines where and how children can work and where they cannot. It is one of the most debated acts regarding children in India.
1990 – National Commission for Women Act – An Act to constitute a National Commission for Women. The National Commission for Women was set up in 1992 to: review the constitutional and legal safeguards for women, recommend remedial legislative measures, facilitate redress of grievances, and advise the Government on all policy matters affecting women.
1994 – The Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition Of Sex Selection) Act – An Act to provide for the prohibition of sex selection, before or after conception, and for regulation of pre-natal diagnostic techniques for the purposes of detecting genetic abnormalities or metabolic disorders or chromosomal abnormalities or certain congenital malformations or sex-linked disorders and for the prevention of their misuse for sex determination leading to female foeticide.
2005 – Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act – The Act legally defined domestic violence and is friendly to poor and illiterate women. Some states have developed strong implementation models.
2006 – Prohibition of Child Marriage Act – An Act to provide for the prohibition of solemnisation of child marriages. Under the Act, a child is a male who has not completed 21 years of age and a female who has not completed 18 years of age. Contracting, performing, conducting or directing a child marriage is a punishable offence. Unless proved otherwise, the parents or guardians of the child are considered to have failed to prevent the child marriage and hence are also held accountable.
2012 – The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act – An Act to strengthen the legal provisions for the protection of children from sexual abuse and exploitation. It applies to all young people under the age of 18 years and provides protection from the offences of sexual assault, sexual harassment, and pornography
2013 – Criminal Law (Amendment) Act – The amendments sought to make provisions relating to gender-based violence. New offences, including acid attack, sexual harassment, and stalking, have been incorporated into the Indian Penal Code. Penalties for the more serious crimes, such as gang rape and causing serious injury, have been increased.
2013 – Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention Prohibition and Redressal) Act – The Act provides protection against sexual harassment of women at workplace.
2016 – Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Act – An Act to prohibit the engagement of children in all occupations and to prohibit the engagement of adolescents in hazardous occupations and processes.
A large country in Southern Asia, India has a population of approximately 1.3 billion. It is currently classed as a lower-middle income nation according to the World Bank.
Gender equality indices
Gender Inequality Index (GII) measures gender inequalities between women and men in three important areas: reproductive health, empowerment, and economic status. Values range from 0 to 1, with higher values indicating more disparities between the genders. Countries with a similar score to India’s current GII index of 0.53 are Iraq, Zambia, Gabon, and Qatar.
India’s global gender gap index
Global Gender Gap Index (GGGI) assesses gender gaps on economic, political, education, and health criteria. Values range from 0 to 1, with lower values indicating more disparities between the genders. According to the 2017 report, India ranks 108 out of 144 countries. India’s GGGI ranking has lowered in comparison with previous years, mainly due to a widening gender gap in basic literacy, healthy life expectancy, and political empowerment.
Gender discrimination is rife in India, including physical, sexual, emotional and economic violence, son preference, unequal resource distribution and unequal decision-making power. Caste discrimination, communal violence and economic policies also impact women in different ways.
GBV crime statistics are high, yet rights workers argue that official statistics do not reflect the magnitude of the problem, as sex crimes are likely to be underreported due to social stigma. The Hindustan Times (August 2017) reported that over 1,000,000 cases had been filed in 10 years under sections pertaining to cruelty by husband and dowry (Chachra, 2017).
Risk factors for domestic violence perpetration and victimisation in India include
- low level of education
- longer marriage duration
- living with extended family
- dissatisfaction of husband’s family with gifts brought by wife
- Muslim religion
These findings combined suggest that prevention programmes should focus on addressing pro-GBV attitudes among both women and men. Such efforts appear particularly crucial in light of India’s low GGGI health and survival rating. Indeed, a study with a large sample of 9,938 Indian women aged 15-49 revealed that experience of physically violent behaviours by their husband doubles the risk of poor mental health among affected women, compared with women who had not reported any physical spousal violence (Kumar, Jeyaseelan, Suresh, & Ahuja, 2005).
- Cruelty by husband or relatives crimes
- assaults on women
- kidnapping and abductions cases
- violations of the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012
2002 study of men’s behavior towards their wives
Other forms of violence against women and girls which require immediate attention include dowry-related violence and harassment and child marriage. Although, in line with the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act (PCMA) of 2006, the legal age for marriage is 18 for women and 21 for men, India has the highest number of child brides in the world. According to the Ministry of Women and Child Development, over half of Indian children suffer sexual abuse, but it is clearly far more widespread than is admitted (Human Rights Watch, 2012).
Responding to gender-based violence
India is a member of the South Asian Initiative to End Violence Against Children (SAIEVAC), which adopted a regional action plan to end child marriage. In 1993, India also ratified the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). In April 2018, the Union Cabinet, the supreme decision-making body in India, approved an ordinance to allow courts to award the death penalty to those convicted of raping a child up to 12 years old. Successful reduction of the prevalence of GBV in India, however, seems to require a whole of society approach, including gender sensitisation as a part of the school curriculum as well as overall improvement in the quality of education.